Zinc is such a critical element in human health that even a small deficiency is a disaster. Zinc supplementation is a powerful therapeutic tool in managing a long list of illnesses. Zinc, an essential trace mineral, is required for the metabolic activity of the body’s enzymes, and is considered essential for cell division and the synthesis of DNA and protein. These enzymes are involved with the metabolism of protein, carbohydrate, fat and alcohol. Zinc is also critical to tissue growth, wound healing, taste acuity, connective tissue growth and maintenance, immune system function, prostaglandin production, bone mineralization, proper thyroid function, blood clotting, cognitive functions, fetal growth and sperm production. The mineral zinc is present in every part of the body. Zinc has a range of functions. It helps with the healing of wounds and is a vital component of many enzyme reactions. Zinc is vital for the healthy working of many of the body’s systems. It is particularly important for healthy skin and is essential for a healthy immune system and resistance to infection. It plays a crucial role in growth and cell division where it is required for protein and DNA synthesis. As a component of many enzymes, zinc is involved in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and energy. Zinc is found in all parts of our body, 60% is found in muscle, 30% in bone and about 5% in our skin. The first signs of zinc deficiency are impairment of taste, a poor immune response and skin problems. Other symptoms of zinc deficiency can include hair loss, diarrhoea, fatigue, delayed wound healing, and decreased growth rate and mental development in infants. Zinc functions as an antioxidant and is involved in many critical biochemical reactions. It also helps to protect DNA from damage and assists in its repair. The role of zinc in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division and proliferation, immune function, and defense against free radicals, has been well established. In brief, zinc functions would be the following: • Supporting normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence • Playing a role in tissue repair • Helping the body use carbohydrate, protein, and fat • Helping to maintain proper immune function, including promoting wound healing • Serving as part of enzymes that control body processes • Maintaining a sense of taste and smell • Maintaining normal vitamin A levels and usage Sufficient levels of zinc are essential for a properly functioning immune system. For example, zinc is required for the development and activity of T-lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that helps fight infection. When people deficient in zinc are given zinc supplements, biological markers of immunity improve. These effects are most clearly seen among children in emerging nations—when given zinc supplementation, they experience shorter courses of infectious diarrhea and may have less serious problems from pneumonia.
Omega 3 Fatty Acid
Addition of n3 PUFAs limits the proinflammatory effect of omea-6 fatty acid, omega 3 fatty acid inhibit both omega-6 desaturase and omega-5 saturase, the former being rate limiting in the conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid. Further, omega-3 fatty acid replace omega-6 fatty acid in cell membrabe phospholipids, which is associated with the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes (3-and 5-series) with reduced proinflammatory potential. The cost of postoperative morbidity consumed a large amount of the diagnosis related group reimbursement rate. Preoperative nutrition supplementation with specialized enteral feeds with L-arginine and omega=3 fatty acid appears to be a cost-effective treatment. Supplemental enteral feeding with arginine and omega 3 fatty acid significantly increased plasma and peripheral white blood cell ω3/ ω6 ratios and significantly decreased PGE2 production and postoperative infectious/ wound complications compared with standard enteral feeding.